Crane flies (tipilidae),They
have a long and thin body and very long, thin legs. The family Tipulidae
includes three subfamilies:
Tipulidae, Cylindrotominae and Limoniinae. They live in the same way.
The adult crane flies don’t eat oreat only a little nectar. They live only
to mate and live not long.
The female has a pointed tip which she uses to push her eggs into the soil.
feed on the roots of plants. They can bee a pestbecause the damage to lawns.
Crane fly (Ctenophora
Crane fly (Nephrotoma
flavipalpis) The wings are folded.
More information about gnats (Nematocera) you can find on Subpage
Of some families I have many species. Those families, I've put on a subpage. Of each family is an example on this page. Below is a link to the subpage.
I also created a subpage with families, which consist mainly of small flies. Hover flies are on two separate pages.
Root-Maggot Fly spec.
Family Root-Maggot Flies (Anthomyiidae)
Greek: anthos = flower en myia = fly
Greenbottle, Lucilia spec Maybe (Lucilia
Other families of flies. They are arranged alphabetically.
I have used the scientific (Latin) name.
Roberflies (Asilidae). Robberflies(Asilidae)
flies, which catch other flies in the same way as dragonflies with
their forelegs. The
short, strong proboscis is used to stab and inject victims with saliva
containing neurotoxic and proteolytic enzymes. The fly then sucks the
liquefied meal through the proboscis.
robber flies have stout, spiny legs.
They aid in pray capture.
Larvae live in the soil and decaying wood. They also feed on other insects.
Awl Robberfly (Neoitamus
cyanurus). Subfamily Asilinae. Family Robber
This is most common species.
It often occurs in the neighbourhood of oaks. It is already bee found
early in spring.
May - September
Length: 20 - 25 mm
Photo left: female
Photo left bottom: male
Photos 8-6-2012, 5-6-2012.
A Small robberfly. forests and shrubs Characterization: The middle of and forefeet are red, a continuous silver line on the
side of the brisket.
Robber flies photographed in the dunes about 4 km from our house.
Dysmachus trigonus. Subfamily
Sandy soils. Lots of light brushes on the segments of the abdomen dark triangles. The ovipositor of the female is on the side flattened. April
- August. Length 10 -15 mm. Photo 30-6-2013.
Pamponerus germanicus. Subfamily
A large robber fly. Edges of woods, dunes. Red-brown with dark legs thighs. May - July. Length 17 -21 mm. Photo 26-6-2013.
Philonicus albiceps. Subfamily
Sandy soils, heath, poor grasslands. Ovipositor female is round. Black legs with mostly white
bristles and short grey hairs. May - October. Length 12 -20 mm. Photos 24-6-2014.
Lasiopogon cinctus. Subfamily
Stichopogoninae. Family Robber
A small robber fly. Forest edges, sandy soils. Black legs.
April - September. Length 7 -11 mm. Photos 3-5-2013, 11-6-2013.
Bee flies (Bombyliidae)
Bee Flies have pubescent (hairy) bodies like bumble bees.
Anthrax anthrax. Genus Anthrax. Familiy Bee flies (Bombyliidae).
It's a black fly. The wings are black. Only the edges of the wings are partially transparent. On the black abdomen are white hairs.
The larvae live in nests of mason bees. At the entrance of the nest the female lays the eggs. The larvae eat the pollen and nectar supply. The eggs and larvae of the bees are
also eaten by the larvae of the Anthrax anthrax.
I don't see many flies. Yet a few times a year.
Length: 7 - 13 mm.
Photos 17-6-2012 en 2-7-2012.
Familiy Bee flies (Bombyliidae). Not in the garden but
in de dunes about 4 km vfrom our house.
It has striking dark brown wings with clear spots. The body is gray-brown, and behind the head is a collar of red hairs. On the abdomen are white spots ..
The larva seems a parasite of the larvae of digger wasps on caterpillars.
In the Netherlands they occur in the sandy heathland and the dunes .
Length: 9-14 mm. Europe, Near East.
Familiy Bee flies (Bombyliidae). Female. Not in the garden but
in de dunes about 4 km vfrom our house.
All over the world there are villa species. In the Netherlands there are
two species similar to the Villa modesta. Namely Villa hottentotta and Villa
longicornis. On the abdomen of the female are white bands and at the end
at both sides yellowish-white hair tufts. The males don't have the white bands and
the hair tufts are very white. The wings are clear. Only the front is brownish.
In the Netherlands you can find them all along the coast.
The female lays her eggs in a hole in the sand, which is filled with sand, dust
when she is laying the eggs. The larvae use as a host the larvae of
several species of moths.
Length: 11 - 16 mm. Photos 29-8-2013.
Man 1-8-2014 in our garden.
Thick-headed flies, Conopid flies (Conopidae)
Thick-headed flies have long antennae, a long snout and a curved body.
Thick-headed flies because of the thick (inflated) head
Conopid flies deposit eggs on the abdomen especially of wasps, bees and bumblebees. This happens in flight. The larvae are
internal parasites or endoparasites. The larvae develops inside the abdomen.
The development is completed within 10 - 12 days, when the host is killed.
quadrifasciatus. Family Thick-headed flies,
There are some similar species. Conops
quadrifasciatus has orange, yellow legs.
Their larvae are endoparasites of bumble bees of the genus Bombus.
Length: 9 - 16 mm
Photos: 16-08-2009. Photos couple: 16-08-2011.
The same day, not the same year.
Physocephala rufipes Family
Physocephala rufipes has a small, long second
segment. The other segments are broader and shorter.
Under the antennae is a black stripe.
Other species in the Nettherlands are:
Physocephala nigra (rare), Physocephala chrysorhhoea, Physocephala vittata.
The larvae are endoparasites of Sphecidae, bees,
bumble bees and social wasps.
Length: 9 - 13 mm.
Leopoldius maybe Leopoldius signatus.
Rare in the Netherlands!!Family
There are more species in the Netherlands. Namely L.
brevirostris, L. coronatus, L. valvatus. They are all very rare.
At the moment I took this picture, it was gloomy weather. After the photo the fly was disappeared. To be able to identify
this fly I needed a photo of the front.
Sicus ferrugineus. Family Thick-headed flies,
A reddish brown Conopid fly.
The larvae are endoparasites of bumblebeesof the genus
May - September.
Photos 27-6-2010, 9-7-2013.
German: Gemeine Breitstirnblasenkopfliege.
Myopa buccata. Family Thick-headed flies,
The different species Myopa are very similar.
Of the Mytopa species in the spring only M. buccata and M. testacea
are to identify from photos. M. tesselatipennis is the commonest in the
Netherlands. (Thanks Han)
Striking is the large, white face (below the eyes).
On these photos they are sitting in a currant bush, which is often visited by the hosts of their larvae. (bees, wasps, bumblebees)
Photos 12-4-2012, 14-4-2012.
The different species Myopa are very similar. Striking is the large, white face (below the eyes).
Myopa buccata. Family Thick-headed flies,
A very variegated brown coloured black Myopa with a striking white head. The wings have a large spots pattern in which there is always a white spot on cross vein R-M. All the thighs with a black ring on the middle.
Length 6 - 11 mm. April - July.
Text taken from "Waarneming"
(translated). Han Endt thanks for identify.
Photos 12-4-2012, 14-4-2012.
Myopa testacea. Family Thick-headed flies,
A dark brown Myopa with just a clear spot in the wing cross vein RM. Sometimes there is to distinguish vague darkening in the top of the wing, but these are never clear spots. Thorax to the scutellum completely black. Because of the spot on the wing it is not to be confused with other
Length 6 - 11 mm. April - July.
Text taken from "Waarneming"
(translated). John Smit thanks for identify.
Long-legged flies (Dolichopodidae) Thefliesareslenderwith
The size of flies in this family is from 1 mm to 9 mm. The arista is upright on the end of the antenna.
Both the fly and larvae are mainly predators. (invertebrates, larvae)
Especially in a humid environment.
Argyra. Family long-legged flies
Very light abdomen. The thorax is shiny green. There are some similar
species. Photos 26-6-2013.
Chrysotus spec. Family long-legged flies (Dolichopodidae).
Very small shiny golden flies. The name of the species
is not possible. Photos 4-6-2012.
Dolichopus spec. Family long-legged flies
I don't know the species.
The fly is beautifully shiny metallic green. The eyes are shiny too. The legs are long and slender.
Photos 14-5-2011 en 24-4-2011
Dolichopus ungulatus. Family long-legged flies
Gedetermineerd door Igor Grichanov. Determinedby IgorGrichanov. A largerspecies,whichIfound
window framein the pantry.Metallicgreen
long-legged flies (Dolichopodidae).
John Carr: A species of Sciapus, the only genus of Dolichopodidae in your area with forked M
but a femaleis not possible from
Photos 2-6-2011. Small,against the wall.
Sciapus platypterus. Family long-legged flies
A slim fly easily recognizable by the white tarsi of the middle leg. In my garden it usually
walks on its long legs in the shade. Photos 12-6-2012.
quadrifasciata. Family long-legged flies (Dolichopodidae).
A slender fly with long legs. The abdomen is yellow with dark spots at the top.
Often on tree trunks. Europe.
Length 3.5 -
Dance Flies, Balloon Flies, Dagger Flies or Empids
Dance flies are predatory flies. On the photo you can see the long snout. Dance fly, because the males dance for the females. They also offer the
females a prey. There are many small species.
I've photos of the genus Empis, Rhamphomyia en Hilara. Differences
are: The fork in the wing veins in the wing tip of wing of the Hilara is
long. In the wing of the Empis it is short-triangular and it lacks in the
wing of the Rhamphomyia.
They don't stabbing people.
Empis tesselata. Family Empididae.
You can see them also on flowers. The lower part of the legs is red brown. The beginning of the wings is orange brown.
Length 9 - 11 mm. May - August
Europe, North Africa, Asia. Photos 22-5-2013. German: Gewürfelte Tanzfliege.
Empis livida. Family Empididae.
A male. The legs are brown. Length 7 - 10 mm.
April - July.
Photo 19-6-2011, 26-6-2012
A gray-black fly with orange legs and shiny black
"saddle" spots on the abdomen segments.
Length 6,5 - 9 mm. Photos 8-5-2013.
spec. Family Empididae.
Hilara spec. Family Empididae.
This is a much smaller species. About 3 -
The males have swollen tarsi, which contains silk glands. These silk
glands is used to wrap up prey during courtship.
14-5-2010, 27-4-2013, 9-5-2013.
Male. The veins in the wings are better visible.
Female. Without the swollen
tarsi of the male.
Family: Small flies.
Mostly grey - black. The larvae live in decaying organic matter.
Fannia spec. Family Fanniidae.
There were several of these flies as well males as females. Length about 4
mm, shiny black. There are many similar flies of the family Faniidae. It isn't possible
to determine these flies from a photo. Photos 24-5-2013.
Lesser housefly (Fannia canicularis).
Photos 12-11-2012. Length 4 - 6 mm.
Photos 17-4-2009. Characteristic to the Fannia lustrator are the
The tuft of hairs on the underside of the front shin is an important characteristic of the Fannia manicata. Photos 20-4-2012.
Photos 6-5-2010. A small, dark fly. About 5 mm.
Heleomyzidae The larvae often live in decaying organic material, fungi (genus
Suillia spec. Family
Heleomyzidae. Notable are the
‘spines’ on the wing edge.
Suillia species are oft in the neighbourhood of mushrooms. Therefore you
can find them mainly in autumn.
Suillia spec. Family
Suillia similis has on the wings three dark spots and darkened cross veins.
But there are more species with these marks like Suillia flava and Suillia
ustulata. Photos 29-9-2014.
Suillia variegata. Family
Suillia affinis resembles this fly.
The wings of Suillia variegata have darker patches. There's a small pale area on the tip after a darker patch.
The larva can be found in waste, manure hope. That's why you find the fly
oft in the neighbourhood of farms. There are even a few species of this
family in the pool area.
I have photographed this species December 25. This
fly must be able to handle the cold. There are flies similar to
Tephrochlamys rufiventris. But they are not so late or early in the year. Photo 25-12-2008.
Megamerina dolium. Family
Megamerina dolium is
the family.Theyare slim,dark andshiny.The legsare
orange.Ithought at firstthatitwasawaspwhen
I saw it in the garden. Size6
- 9mm. The larvae arepredators.Theylive underthebarkof
Photos 16-8-2011, 2-7-2014.
Big-Headed Flies Thereare both small andlargefliesin
arehairlessdarkflieswith very largeeyes.
parasites ofcicadas.The cicadas don'tsurvive,because itis finallycompletelyeaten.Thenthe
larvaepupatein the soil.They are relatedtohover flies.
Thespeciescan not be
determined from these photos. This is asmall
4 - 5 mm.
27-6-2015, 30-6-2015, 17-6-2011.
Rust flies (Psilidae)
Carrot fly. Psila merdaria
or Psila fimetaria. The difference is not
visible on these photos. Family Rust flies (Psilidae).
striking orange fly. It has few brushes
and clear wings. The length of this fly was about one cm. The larvae of the carrot flies are fytofaag
(plant eating). They live in the roots, bulbs and non-woody stems. Photos 24-5-2009.
Chamaepsila spec. Family Rust flies (Psilidae).
A shiny dark fly with an orange front of the head. The legs are yellow-orange. Well known is the carrot fly Chamaepsila
rosae, whose larvae damage in carrots, but
also celery, parsley, leeks, onions. However in the Netherlands there are more
similar Chamaepsila species. Length about 4 - 5 mm.
A black fly withe orange legs, antennae and
front of the head. The wings are dark at the end. the and of the scutellum
is brown. The eyes with a band..
About 7 mm.
Snipe flies (Rhagionidae) Snipe flies are small- or large-sized flies.
They have slender bodies, long legs and long wings.
Small Fleck-winged Snipe Fly, Rhagio lineola. Family snipe flies
About 8 mm. Photos 10-7-2010,
Downlooker snipefly ( Rhagio scolopaceus). Family snipe flies
(Rhagionidae). Female and male.
Distinct black spots and a black pterostigma in the wing. It hunts for insects.
Length 8 - 16 mm. May - September. Photos 15-5-2014, 21-5-2014.
Family snipe flies (Rhagionidae). Female. A
slightlydarkeryellowwithbrown stripesin length.On
the abdomenaredark spots.The maleis
the maleisdark. The larvaefeed
on larvae of other species andlive
8 to 14mm. Photos 19-8-2011.
Chrysopilus cristatus. Family snipe flies
Female: The abdomen is golden coloured. On the thorax you see two grey dusted stripes.
Male (left): It is slimmer and darker with unclear or no stripes. It looks like the in the Netherlands much rarer C. splendidus.
Length 6-8 mm. Europe. Photos 6-6-2011, 2-7-2012.
Chrysopilusasiliformis. Family snipe flies
Head, thorax and abdomen are grey dusted. Green eyes. Brownish-yellow thighs.
Length 6-9 mm. Photos female: 26-6-2014. Male: 26-6-2016.
Rhinophoridae. It also has the stiff
hairs like the Tachinidae. The antennae are smaller.
In the Netherlands there are 7 species. The larvae are parasitoids of woodlice.
Parasitoids like the larvae of the Tachinidae. More
In the Netherlands the family
Rhinophoridae consists of six genera. The genus Stevenia consists of two
species. The other genera consist of one species.
roralis. Family Rhinophoridae.
It has dark wings with clear veins. The females have white wing tips.
About 5 mm. Photo 17-6-2011, 17-6-2013, 15-5-2014.
Rhinophora lepida. Family
A small, shiny dark fly. I see these flies in June and
July on many flowers in the garden. In the first two pictures it is on Yarrow.
Paykullia maculata. Family Rhinophoridae.
A shiny black fly.
The wings are partly dark.
Phyto melanocephala. Family Rhinophoridae.
Photos 24-11-2011. Very, very late for this fly.
Stevenia umbratica. Family Rhinophoridae.
Probably for it is very similar to Stevenia atramentaria.
Dung-flies, Scathophagidae The
sizevaries.3 to 12mm.
The body and legs often have many brushes and hairs. The
rottingorganicwastes such asmanure.But there arealsolarvae, which are miners.
Family Dungflies (Scathophagidae).
Scathophaga with light coloured antennas are
difficult to determine.
The Scathophaga furcata have a light coloured antenna, butspecies like Scathophaga lutaria and for example S. Suilla. have
also light antennas. They catch other flies... often on
Scathophaga stercoraria can be recognized by the dark antennae. A very
In the Netherlands only the antennas of the much rarer Scathophaga litorea
are dark too. Outside the Netherlands lives the Scathophaga calida. (Both species occur on the coast).
Photos of the Dungfly. March, April
They catch other flies, but sometimes
they feed on nectar. On this photos with many pollen. Flower: Pilewort
The females are less hairy and they're grayer.
Gelbe Dungfliege, Gemeine Kotfliege French: scatophage du fumier, mouche
A slender black fly with yellow red legs without spines of many family members and with a dark tarsus. The black antennae are long and have a yellowish arista.
It is not often seen in the Netherlands. About the way of life is not much known to me.
The spines on the thigh are characteristic. (spinipes: thorny legged)
The female put the eggs on the leaves of the daffodil. (down near the bottom) The larva eats mainly in the part under the soil (leafminer). Therefore the outer leaves die off. The bulbs have no damage. They are often less large.
Sarcophagidae Smallto verylargeflies.3-22mm.
Characteristics: Stripes on the thorax, red eyes and
a checkerboard like pattern on the abdomen. Because
look like tachinidae. The larvae are parasites. Furthermore, I 've
found different descriptions in books and sites. There are written about
food sources such as earthworms, insect larvae, pupae, but also dead
Family Flesh flies, Sarcophagidae.
is the most common species, but there are more similar species.
The flies feed on nectar and pollen.
A young Flesh fly, Sarcophaga. The wings are not ready. That will take a while. (Two
hours is possible) Meanwhile it walks on the leave.
On the head it has a kind of hatchet. It
uses it in the "egg" to get out. Later it disappears.
Metopia spec. Genus Metopia.
Miltogramminae. Family Sarcophagidae.
There are different species. On the forum
"waarneming.nl" are 7 species for the Netherlands. (M. argentata,
M. argyrocephala, M. campestris, M. grandii, M. italiana, M. staegerii, M.
tshernovae) The differences are unfortunately very small.
It is a small mobile fly. In the sun, its face
looks like a light. That is characteristic to all family members.
The larvae of the flies in the subfamily Miltogramminae are parasites of the food
of various species of bees and wasps.
The large photo: A young fly.
Photos juni 2012, left bottom 14-5-2011.
Photos 25-4-2011. An other Metopia spec. Browner. Only the lower part of the head is white.
Not in the garden but in the dunes 3 km from my house.
Miltogramma germari. Genus Metopia. Subfamily
Miltogramminae. Family Sarcophagidae.
The other two species in the Netherlands are M. punctata
and M. Testaceifrons. Miltogramma germari is recognizable by the light brown part on the head. The similarity with Metopia is clear. However, they have less hard bristles on the abdomen.
They are parasites of nesting wasps like Digger Wasps (Sphecidae).
Sciomyzidae It has got this name snail-killer
because the larvae
parasite on snails and slugs.
You can find all Dutch Sciomyzidae on
Marsh fly, snail-killer
spec. Family Sciomyzidae.
In the Netherlands there are many very similar species of this family. Tetanocera
arrogans, T. elata, T. ferruginea,
T. freyi, T. fuscinervis, T. hyalipennis, T. montana, T. phyllophora, T.
punctifrons, T. robusta, T. silvatica.
They sometimes look similar on the
flies of the family Scathophaga. But they are less hairy.
Some photos I 've taken.
Photos 4-7-2011, 25-4-2011, 23-4-2011, 27-9-2011
Couple Photo 24-4-2011
Tetanocera ferruginea. Family
Ths brown snail killer could be identified. On a rotten apple.
Coremacera marginata. Family Sciomyzidae.
A marsh fly with a greyish thorax and dark-greyish
wings with many light-greyish spots.
Length 7 - 10 mm. May - October.
Europe - Near East. Photos 24-9-2012.
The are yellow and red. The thorax
is grey, the wings with many
light-greyish spots. Length about 7
mm. Photos 27-8-2013.
It looks like the Tentanocera. In the
Netherlands, there are two species. The other species is Elgiva cucularia.
Small and if you compare this fly with the other Sciomyzidae
the gray stripes on the back are striking . Photos 24-5-2013. On
the flowers of Garlic-mustard.
(In the dunes, but sometimes I see it in our garden)
The head, thorax and abdomen are dark grey, blackish. De femurs
are orange red. Length 8 - 11 mm. April - October. Photos 7-10-2013.
Spinipes because it has spines on the thighs. A much slimmer
fly than the Tetanocera. Length about 8 mm.
Photos 04-04-2011, 19-4-2013.
Trypetoptera punctulata. Family
Because of the patterned wings is often thought that it is a
peacock fly. Length 6-7 mm. May - October. Palearctic. Photos 19-6-2014.
Horse-flies, gadflies ( Tabanidae).
In our garden we almost never see a gadfly. The fly feeds on nectar and pollen. The female sticks and then sucks blood from humans and animals. It needs
blood for the eggs to develop. The larvae are aquatic, semi-aquatic or terrestrial and
feed on other invertebrates such as worms, snails and other Diptera larvae, including their own species.
(translated text Pjotr Oosterbroek) There are about 38 species in the Netherlands.
A link to the
species on waarneming.
Large marsh horsefly(Tabanus autumnalis).
Family Horse-flies, gadflies (Tabanidae). Female.
A large gray fly. On the abdomen are light triangular spots. But more
horse-flies have triangular spots. The sharp mouth parts are visible in
the left pictures. A horse-fly has no arista on the antenna.
It looks like the band-eyed brown horsefly (T. bromius) and pale giant horse-fly
Length about 20 mm.
April - September.
Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and Western Asia.
Photos 29-6-2012. Male:
Horse Fly (Haematopota). Family Horse-flies, gadflies
In the Netherlands there are several similar
species. Haematopota crassicornis, Common Horse Fly or Notch-horned Cleg Fly
(Haematopota pluvialis), Haematopota subcylindrica, Haematopota italica. Rarer:
Haematopota scutellata and Haematopota bigoti.
Already the second horse fly in the garden this year. I was stabbed twice in my arm.
An hour later I saw it in the scullery. I could take a picture before it flew away.
A week later I was stabled in my leg. I've taken a photo of this horse
This horse fly is identifiable by the zigzag lines on the brightly
coloured eyes and the spotted pattern on the wings. Those wings are folded
roof-shaped over the body.
The length of this horse fly was about 11 mm.
Photo 9-8-2012, 18-8-2012.
Twin-lobed deerfly (Chrysops relictus). Family Horse-flies, gadflies (Tabanidae). Female.
Not in the garden but in the dunes abou 4 km from my house.
After having buzzed a while around my head it was looking for a place on my finger to suck
blood. Some blood for some photographs of this beautiful horse fly. A good deal.
It has shiny blue-green eyes containing purple spots. The abdomen is yellowish brown with black bands. The wings are partially black, and can not be folded over each other.
It is very similar to the Chrysops viduatus.
Often in wet heathland areas. The larvae live in decaying vegetation in humid circumstances. They eat other larvae.
Length 9 - 14 mm. May - September. Europe. Photos 3-9-2013.
4-8-2014. This twin-lobed deerfly was a year later
in our garden.
Stiletto flies (Therevidae) They are mostly hairy flies.
stiletto fly(Thereva nobilitata). Family Therevidae.
From this family, there are many small species. The Common
stiletto fly is larger. But there there are similar species. It is not
The English name refers to the narrow, tapering abdomens. The dense short
golden hair looks like felt. (Dutch name translated: felt fly) Between the
eyes of the female are two dark spots.
Length 10 - 13 mm.
May - September
Female. Photos 30-6-2012.
The male. Photos 19-6-2010.
Ulidiidae The wings have a pattern of spots or a spot at the top of the wing.
A shiny dark fly with a prominent spot on the wings. He looks like a Lesser
As a l
you can find the larvae in manure and decaying material.
Length 5 to 6 mm.
muscae. cf: very probably but there are more species of Entomophthora.
With countless enemies flies don't have an easy life. This fungus is also deadly. I placed it on the fly page, because many people think that it is a special kind of fly with
these white bands.
All kinds of flies can suffer from it. This is a Phaonia family house flies (Muscidae). The Dungfly (Scathophaga) you
also frequently see with this fungus.
The fungus grows also inside the fly. If it reaches the brains, it affects the behavior of the fly. Shortly before
its death the fly crawls to a high point. As a result, the spores can be better spread. The belly (abdomen) swells, the legs and wings are spread. Around the abdomen, you see
the white bands.
I want to thank everyone, who has helped me (waarneming.nl)
to identify. In particular, Joke van Erkelens, Robert Heemskerk, Mark van Veen,
Gerard Pennards, Niels-Jan Dekand Han Endt. With the determination of Tachinidae I have had
much help from Theo Zeegers and Chris Raper. (On diptera)